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The different roasting styles.

Photo above indicates the stages of roasting coffee beans undergo from the original green (1), unroasted bean to (2) pale yellow, to (3) early yellow, to (4) yellow-tan, to (5) light brown cinnamon, to (6) brown, to (7) first crack stage, to (8) (first crack done), to (9) City Roast, to (10) City+Roast, to (11)Full City, to (12) Full City+(2nd crack), to (13) Vienna-Light French, to (14) Full French, to (15) Italian-Spanish, to (16) Carbonized (danger of fire).

Kinds of Roasts
Light Coffee Roast: (380-400°F) sometimes called American Coffee Roast or Cinnamon Coffee Roast.
It is light brown in color, similar to milk chocolate.
Medium Coffee Roast: (400-415°F) sometimes called Half City Roasts. Rich brown color similar in color to the midpoint between dark and milk chocolate.
Medium Dark Roast Coffee: (415-435°F) sometimes called City Coffee Roast or Dark Coffee Roast. Dark brown color and slightly oily coffee.
French Roast Coffee: (435-445°F) Dark brown in color, oily and less shiny than dark roasts.
Dark Roast Coffee: (445-460°F) sometimes called Full City Coffee Roast, Viennese Coffee Roast, Dark French Coffee Roast, Spanish Coffee Roast, and Italian Coffee Roast. Black in color, but still very shiny and oily. It has a slight burnt flavor.

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Coffee tasting terminology
Acidity - The sensation of dryness in the back and under the edges of your mouth. This is a desirable quality and not to be confused with sour (which is considered a bad quality of coffee). Acidity creates a lively, bright taste which without it, the coffee would taste flat.
Aroma – Without aroma, we could only taste sweet, sour, bitter and salty. This is where we get the subtle differences such as floral, nutty or fruity. Body – The way the coffee feels in your mouth, its viscosity or heaviness. The best way to describe it is the comparison to how whole milk feels in your mouth compared to water. If you are unsure as to the level of body in the different coffees, add an equal amount of milk to each one and the one with the heavier body will retain more of its flavor when diluted.
Flavor – This is the overall perception of the three characteristics above. Flavor can be rich (full bodied), complex (multi-flavored), or balanced (no one characteristic overpowers the other).

Here are some terms used to describe DESIRABLE flavor qualities:
Bright or dry – highly acidic leaving a dry aftertaste
Caramelly – caramel like or syrupy
Chocolatey – aftertaste similar to unsweetened chocolate or vanilla
Earthy – a soil-like quality (sometimes unfavorable)
Fragrant – an aroma ranging from floral to nutty to spicy, etc.
Fruity – having a citrus or berry scent
Mellow – a smooth taste lacking acidity but not flat
Nutty – similar to roasted nuts
Spicy – an exotic aroma of various spices
Sweet – a lack of harshness
Wild – a gamey flavor rarely, but sometimes considered favorable
Winey – aftertaste resembling a mature wine

Here are some terms used to describe UNDESIRABLE flavor qualities:
Bitter – aftertaste perceived on the back of the tongue
Bland – neutral in flavor
Carbony – burnt charcoal flavors
Earthy – a musty, soil-like quality
Flat – lacking aroma, acidity, and aftertaste
Grassy – aroma and taste of grass
Harsh – a caustic, raspy quality
Muddy – thick and flat
Musty – slightly stuffy smell (sometimes desirable in aged coffees)
Rubbery – a smell of burnt rubber
Sour – a tart flavor such as unripe fruit
Turpentiny – a flavor resembling turpentine
Watery – a lack of body
Wild – a gamey flavor

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